Executive Insights | January 2012 | By Sam Oches

Who is Sardar Biglari?

The CEO of Steak ‘n Shake is using his unique style to try to reboot the company's operations.

image used with permission.

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When Sardar Biglari moved with his family to the U.S. in 1984, Steak ‘n Shake was already a verified favorite on the quick-serve scene. In fact, the tried-and-true Midwestern chain was celebrating its 50th anniversary the year Biglari immigrated to San Antonio from Iran.

Today, 28 years later, Biglari is chairman and CEO of Biglari Holdings, the parent company of Steak ‘n Shake, Western Sizzlin, and investment management firm Biglari Capital Corp., a group of subsidiary companies that together are worth hundreds of millions of dollars.

And he’s only 34 years old.

Since joining Steak ‘n Shake’s board of directors in March 2008 and then taking over as chairman and CEO in August of that year, Biglari has implemented a top-down overhaul of its operations. The overhaul has helped the company to 10 straight quarters of same-store sales growth, as of Q3 2011. Steak ‘n Shake also went from losing more than $100,000 a day in 2009 to making more than $100,000 a day in 2010, according to Biglari’s 2010 letter to shareholders.

The man behind the success, however, can only be described as a mystery. His aggressive approach to taking control of businesses has put off some. And his move to standardize pricing and menus across Steak ‘n Shake’s system sparked a backlash from franchisees, some of whom even filed a lawsuit against him. He’s also known for playing close to the vest, as proven by his refusal to speak with media, including QSR.

“Although we cheerfully will discuss our investment philosophy and operating catechism as we believe it necessary to clarify expectations for [our shareholders], we will not telegraph our interests in specific publicly traded companies, our rationale, or our plans,” Biglari said in his 2010 letter. “Outside of regulatory requirements, we will not air our investment ideas, particularly in a world of investment competitors. We leave the yammering to others.”

The Sage of San Antonio

In the investment community, there is no greater idol than Warren Buffett. The chairman and CEO of Omaha, Nebraska–based Berkshire Hathaway has made billions by turning a simple textile mill into a holding company that possesses the highest-valued stock on the New York Stock Exchange.

Perhaps nobody respects Buffett quite like Biglari does. The young businessman reportedly was inspired to become an investor after reading a book about Buffett and discovering that the two shared a birthday. Rumor goes that he has Buffett-signed memorabilia in his office and follows Berkshire Hathaway’s progress carefully.

Today, no article or investment analysis is written about Biglari without a comparison to Buffett. After all, it’s not lost on people that his San Antonio–based holding company is structured quite similarly to Buffett’s. Or that Biglari Holdings shares initials with Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway, and until this article was written had a similar website to the Oracle of Omaha’s.

Jim Gillies, a private investor and contractor for financial-services company The Motley Fool, has followed Biglari’s career since 2006 and is a Biglari Holdings shareholder.

“I think [Biglari has] cultivated an image of trying to be another Buffett, and if some of the investment community ran a little too far with that analogy, that’s hardly his fault—although he did nothing to discourage it,” Gillies says.

Biglari and his business partner Philip Cooley built a solid portfolio of investments between 2000 and 2005, when they purchased a share of Western Sizzlin, a Southeast-based chain of mostly franchised buffet restaurants.

In early 2006, after purchasing more Western Sizzlin Corporation stock, Biglari became chairman of the board at the company. He then took an investor’s approach to Western Sizzlin by creating a holding company that broke the chain up by individual subsidiaries. Each subsidiary was treated as a separate business, and cash from each was redirected to the best investment within the holding company.

Since taking control of Western Sizzlin (which Biglari Holdings fully acquired in 2010), Biglari has continued to pursue opportunities in the restaurant industry. This includes an attempted takeover of Friendly’s and at various points holding significant amounts of shares in Sonic and Red Robin (at press, Biglari was also involved in a proxy fight with Cracker Barrel).

He refuses, however, to be considered a restaurant-focused company and has made moves to diversify his portfolio, including a failed attempt at acquiring an insurance company.

“The critical point is that we could in one particular moment derive most of our earnings from one industry, such as restaurants, and then with a single large acquisition begin to derive most of our earnings from a different industry,” Biglari said in his 2010 letter. “Although capital allocation is a crucial element at most businesses, it is our business at BH.”

When Biglari invested in Steak ‘n Shake in 2007, the company had been growing sales each year, but it was also spending too much on new stores and operations and not getting a return on investment.

In addition, Gillies says, it was breaching its debt covenants and not taking advantage of millions in possible tax refunds.

“[Biglari] was very critical of the prior management of Steak ‘n Shake for enriching themselves at the cost of the investor,” Gillies says. “I believe Steak ‘n Shake was probably on the very short course toward flirting with bankruptcy.”

So after buying shares in the company, Biglari began complaining to management about its poor execution and lobbying to shareholders for a change. He asked for seats for himself and Cooley on the company’s board of directors and was denied. He then upped the campaign against Steak ‘n Shake’s management, launching a website that demanded change and even buying billboard space in the concept’s hometown of Indianapolis.

In March 2008, he and Cooley were voted overwhelmingly onto the company’s board of directors by shareholders. By August, Biglari was CEO and chairman and was already working actively on turning the ship around—a ship from which many on the prior management team had already jumped.

Gillies says Biglari is “not a restaurant guy” but that “he’s immersed himself in that world” so he can increase the return for his investors.

“There are a lot of really poorly run restaurant chains,” Gillies says. “They might be wonderful eating experiences, the people running them might be wonderful people … but the fact of that matter is that there’s a lot of restaurant chains where the investors haven’t made a dime in five, 10 years, while the people running the companies have gotten rich.

“Someone like Biglari comes along, and he kicks over the hornet’s nest.”

Going Beyond Buffett

Though the comparisons between Biglari and Buffett are easy to spot, there are plenty of moves Biglari has made that stray from the Buffett script.

Buffett has “either bought companies outright, which allows him to make the changes that he sees necessary, or he focuses on companies that are run really well and buys a large investment stake, and then doesn’t say a word,” says Chad Brand, founder and president of Peridot Capital Management and also a shareholder with Biglari Holdings.

“If Buffett had bought Steak ‘n Shake, you can bet he would have hired an operations guy to run Steak ‘n Shake, and Buffett would have stayed in his office and looked for ways to invest the profits from Steak ‘n Shake,” Brand says. “Biglari hasn’t done that.”

Biglari has instead jumped into the everyday operations of Steak ‘n Shake, a company that was founded in 1934 by Gus Belt as a place for customers to get a premium hamburger and hand-dipped milkshake.

Some of his changes at Steak ‘n Shake have been so unlike Buffett, however, that they’ve riled up some in the investor crowd.

First, there was the 20-for-1 reverse stock split in December 2009 that sent the price of shares from about $13 to about $260, and the attempted 15-for-1 split that could have shot the price to nearly $7,000 (shareholders vetoed the latter).

Biglari claims that the reverse stock split is a way to weed out short-term-thinking shareholders.

“We will continue to strive to avidly excite the attention of blue-chip shareholders who are unfazed by near-term fluctuations in our stock or by the vagaries of the stock market,” he said in his 2010 letter. “Rather, such investors are placing their confidence in us and, like us, judge performance on the basis of long-term value creation.”

Brand, who wrote a letter to Biglari crying foul over the second reverse stock split, says the first one was a sensible move for a company trying to establish long-term success. “He’s trying to build this company up for the next 30 years, not necessarily for the next 30 days,” Brand says.

The next move that baffled some investors was a name change; in April 2010, Biglari changed the name of Steak ‘n Shake corporate to Biglari Holdings and consolidated his other brands within the company.

The final move that was quite unlike Buffett was the compensation package he proposed for himself. Although his salary was already $900,000, he proposed a deal that would pay him 25 percent of the increase in Biglari Holdings’ adjusted book value, exceeding a 6 percent hurdle rate; in other words, potentially millions of dollars a year. Shareholders approved the compensation in late 2010.

“What we too often learn in corporate America is pay-for-failure because of asymmetrical payouts through which executives win regardless of whether their shareholders win or lose,” Biglari said in his shareholder letter. “True pay-for-performance is a concept that most investors accept intellectually.”

But for all of his anomalies—which include having a picture of him welcoming guests installed at each unit—Biglari has succeeded at turning Steak ‘n Shake around. As he promised in his 2008 letter to shareholders, when he said the company’s “fundamental idea is to become the most efficient restaurant company in the industry,” Biglari has streamlined operations and slashed company costs across the board.

When he took over the company, Biglari halted new store construction and cut many unnecessary company costs. He’s since added promotions like the company’s popular 4 Meals Under $4 offering, all you can eat pancakes, kids-eat-free options, and a half-price happy hour for milkshakes. There have also been several new menu offerings, like the California Burger, that have reportedly been approved by Biglari himself.

Steak ‘n Shake is also rolling out a new store prototype that costs $1.5 million instead of the previous $2.2 million, and trims the square footage from 4,200 to 3,200. The new prototype, which features retro photos of the company and other design tweaks, is “a display of our uncompromising dedication to the pursuit of excellence,” Biglari said in his 2010 letter. A counter-service-only prototype, the Signature, is also set to debut this month.

Not everyone is on board with the changes Biglari has made to the brand. In early 2011, some franchisees complained that all of the promotions had hurt store margins, and a group of franchisees filed a lawsuit against Biglari over his moves to standardize menus and pricing. And there are rumblings from franchisees that the prototype change skimps too much on equipment.

Although franchisees represent a small portion of the Steak ‘n Shake system—at the end of 2010, it had only 75 franchised units of 487—Biglari may want to consider the plight of those operators. After all, he said in his 2010 letter that Steak ‘n Shake will be “investing in human resources, training, supply chain, and, more significantly, franchising” as a means to grow.

Franchising, he said, is a “fiery growth engine, the kind of business we like to own: one that does not require enormous sums of cash to generate annuity-like cash flow.” Biglari also said he’d like to grow the company by 1,000 franchised units, though he did not mention in what time frame.

Is it too soon to judge Biglari’s moves at Steak ‘n Shake? Probably. But Gillies says investors, operators, and critics alike would be wrong to write him off so soon.

“I think people underestimate Biglari,” he says. “I think he’s very confident in what he does, he’s very measured in what he does. He doesn’t really care about outside criticism.”

Photo: © San Antonio Express-News/ZUMApress.com / © Edward A. Ornelas / 2007


I have been an avid consumer of Steak & Shake meals for over 35 years and the changes to the menu prices $4 is fantastic. I am not a restaurant owner and probably never would be one, but I like the old adage when it comes to products and profitable businesses, "if it ain't broke don't fix it" As a customer, one of the things that the company may want to consider is to conduct a survey of the customers, especially the locations of the older franchises or company owned facilities in the midwest. Those communities, who have been loyal customers of Steak & Shake, could probably add some positive comments and suggestions about a great restaurant. Those areas would be Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Tennessee, and Florida. Again, my suggestion is not meant to be taken as a knock on the business just a friendly suggestion. Lastly, keep on "Steakin & Shakein

Biglari could care less about what you want or think. He is an awful, rude person. That is why nobody likes him. Maybe if he wasn't such a jerk, people would be more receptive to him....

Those who admire Biglari should look into just how he makes his money. Ask him how much waitresses and waiters at Steak 'n Shake make per hour (under $4 for most) and how many of them are allowed to work full-time and receive benefits (virtually none). And ask those waiters and waitresses how many jobs they have to hold down to support themselves and their families. And ask the taxpayers how they like having to pay for food stamps, Medicaid, and other subsidies for low-income wage earners like S&S employees. I've always admired Warren Buffet, but I can't believe he would admire these business practices--I sure hope not.

Patricia, you are 100% correct. This article is a misleading fabrication. I just opened my newspaper this morning to see that he is still trying to buy more shares ( to date a little over 19%), and he is NOT EVEN on the board. He certainly is not the CEO. I have a hard time believing someone would write and article so full of false information. Share holders are trying to stop him, because they know his reputation for crapping on the employees of various companies he taken over, and how he cheats the share holders. His company is based here in San Antonio, and I can tell you, he's not loved.Read this: it's similar to the article in our lcoal paper today (Nov 15, 2012)http://blogs.wsj.com/deals/201...

Seewcrazy, you do realize that this article is concerning Steak 'n Shake and the article you are referring to is concerning Cracker Barrel, two completely different restaurant companies. Get your facts straight before complaining about this (very factual) article. Furthermore, as a businessman dealing with publically traded companies, like Sardar, your concern is for the shareholders and getting the greatest return for them through whatever avenue you think best. The concern is not based on the wages of the workers, a business that has shareholders will rarely pay their employees more than required by law because this allows money to go back into the business. I'm not saying worker's should be of no concern to management, but that is not their main focus. You'd be hard pressed to find me a handful of fast food companies that pay above minimum wage. And, in fact, Sardar has successfully turned a failing brand around and has had positive same store sales (look it up) for over 10 consecutive quarters which is very impressive in this economy. Addressing minimum wage would be a better way to address the issue you have with this company.

Dudes and Dudettes: if the like minded in this country who follow the following philosophy 'Furthermore, as a businessman dealing with publically traded companies, like Sardar, your concern is for the shareholders and getting the greatest return for them through whatever avenue you think best. The concern is not based on the wages of the workers' the questions that pop up are so simple then yes? like why not just higher proper slaves at zero labor costs...you see, it is the so called "successful businessmen (and shareholders hiding from view)" that have turned this once appealling middle class country into an economic toilet. Godspeed AMerica.

I work for this god for saken restaurant and servers only make 2.30 and hour and depending on location.. tips aren't guaranteed and barely add up to anything if you do get some. Also once the restaurant dies down some.. your sent home even after only 3 or 4 hours of working..

Waiters at almost every restaurant in the country make $2-$3 an hour plus tips. If you don't like it, quit.

I agree Bob! People who work at Steak N Shake and other fast food restaurants shouldn't be raising families. These jobs are designed for young people starting out while they work to better themselves; not to support a family. High Schoolers, College Kids, not grown adults.

That is how it is in the restaurant business, anywhere you go. And tips are money in your pocket that you are not being taxed on--and ya, I have worked in restaurants, both front and back of the house.

Tips that are not taxed on? I don't know where you work, but all of our tips are taxed. In fact, the restaurants skims off your tips to supplement other employees pay. That's why it was sued for a tip share program for bus service that never existed etc.

I have worked in restaurants where the cash tips are not taxed but the tips that are put on charge slips are. I have also worked in places where the wait staff tip out the kitchen and the bus boys/dish dogs. The places I work are stand alone restaurants not fast foodesque.

does he put a gun to anyones head and makes them work?ordo they chose to work under these terms????

This guy didn't set the bar for a waitresses minimum wage. Food stamps cost taxpayers absolutely nothing but envy for those who receive as the stimulus benefits are actually +$0.73 per dollar. I wish the ignorant rhetoric who die on that subject once and for all.What Biglari did do is create reasonable prices and new classics to the menu and focused on removing the coupon based culture of the company that I remembered for 25 years and have a simple $4 menu. I absolutely love Steak n Shake now... that I can readily and easily afford it!Waitresses should get paid closer to minimum wage like in Canada ($9.50) but that's up to State Legislaters, not business owners.

Food stamps cost taxpayers nothing? Barry, is that you?

Oh I should add being born and raised on this restaurant... Steak and Shake had a verifiable reputation of hiring discrimination for predominately white, clean shaven males at the cooking stations and servers that were only female. That has fortunately changed under Biglari.

I imagine the service has suffered as well.

How many people do you employ? Zero.How much do you pay out? Zero.So he does far more for people than you do.It's been two years, but someone needs to tell you to shut up.

Steak n' shake has also cut down employee meals from 65% off, to 40% off, and while most late night waitresses used to get paid 6.85 after midnight, now only make 3.60 per hour at any time. If you travel to another store because a product has run out, it is with your own gas money. The old CEO approved our dining room to be closed at 2am because we are in such a bad neighborhood, and it has been that way for almost 5 years, but the new corporate has decided that they thinks it is safe to keep our store open 24 hours. They must have not asked our two employees who were mugged on their way home last year what they thought. And yes, health care is rare. I also want to ask how you all enjoy your great deals? Because you are truly paying for it in your contribution to welfare.

The big money is made by people like this that come to the US and don't have to pay taxes for 7 years.................then they sell off to other family members who come over and do the same. Hotels, restaurants and gas stations. This insurance thing is yet another way......government finds out who the sick and weak ones are so euthanizing those will be easy.....easy to find through the medical records. It will provide housing, food and fuel when things get really bad here for Americans. They will have everything they need to survive. We will not. Get smart people. They are planning ahead...........way ahead.We cannot survive without fuel. How do you get to work, school, etc. How do you have money if you cannot get to work? It is all being planned. We will be at "their" mercy.It is like terrorism in a very different form. . Get ready for it. Thank you Mr. President

How dare you think and express (blame it on President Obama), because these freebies have been going on I KNOW since the 1980's, which is long before President Obama was in office. The Vietnamese were receiving the same benefits of $10k- $20k to open their own business and NO TAXES for 7 years. What have we received? Do you pay taxes? Get angry at the right ones before blaming our current president.

How do you think all these people from Pakistan, India and China now own and run all these business. Some of them in the smallest US towns.

There should be some kind of concern about the employee conduct however...How do you plan to run a flawless business if none of the employees find it even worth it? Im not saying pay them $15 dollars an hour, im just saying treat them like people. Yeah Steak N Shakes have 24 hours, but there are some days where it's just too disastrous out side, where it's an actual risk to health to head to work and yet I've still seen some workers forced to come in, despite the other restaurants down the street being closed for these exact reasons.I'm just saying if you try and treat your workers like actual people rather then "cogs in a machine" then perhaps you'll get the satisfaction that you seek every time you go to one of these restaurants.Being a Business Major I can tell that while alot of his endeavors are earning him great money, it's just short term. He's just now starting to make changes, but it's almost too late...

My wife worked for SNS and even with the low wage she still brought home an avg. of $300 in cash a week in tips plus a pay check!!! I dont see the problem!!! You can make good money here and the food is the best of the best I love and visit SNS so much that Im now part of the team!!! I will be a Store Owner One Day!!!! Thank you Sardar Biglari for the opportunity and setting my career path into overdrive!!!! Im on my way UP!!!

This company is a joke! I have been employed at Steak n shake since the ceo before sardar was running things! He has taken away our vacation pay, our holiday pay (while making us work more holidays!), he has taken away the ability for servers to earn raises, started charging his servers 2 and a half percent to receive credit card tips, significantly cut employee discounts under the pretense that we would get new uniforms and then recanting. There is so much more havoc that he has caused! He cares nothing for his employees! While I fully grasp the concept of creating profitability for the company, his employees make the company! It is the lowly employees who make or break the entire experience! He is a horrible person to work for!

i wish we had a steak and shake where i live the closed one is 100 miles i take my son to columbia ,mo. hospital alot when we go there we always eat at one

I used to love Steak N Shake but the one that opened near us went downhill fast. The management was horrible and the "children" hired to work there had no interest in working! They finally ran the place into the ground and it is now boarded up. This is in Houston, TX. I was just reading about another Steak N Shake in Kos County Indiana where an employee was weilding a knife at another employee. Manager thought it was funny! Kid was not fired, police made a joke of it and female employee is really shaken up. What the hell is wrong with the managers at these places? I think the CEO needs to get some serious training going with these mangers and maybe fire a bunch. Just a thought Mr. CEO.

None of this should be a surprise to anyone. We do not live in a country that operates for the benefit of "it's people". In fact, The United States is not a country at all - just one more corporation that exists for the profit of others. It was created for that purpose and remains so to this day. Look it up if you doubt my word. All of this talk about doing what's right for the worker, or even the customer, is mere prattle. All that matters are the obscene salaries, bonuses, and golden parachutes of those on top and, to achieve that end, great effort is made to contort facts and morals to supply shareholders with that which they demand - abundant values and dividends. Everyone and everything else be damned.

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