There’s nothing cheesy about fromage.
Cheese is one of the most ancient man-made food products, dating back thousands of years. Today, it’s among the most popular ingredients in cuisine, with hundreds of varieties from dozens of countries around the world.
“When you talk about a food category, probably the most innovative one now is cheese,” says Richard Keys, a chef and cofounder of Food and Drink Resources, a restaurant consulting company with offices in Denver and Dallas. “There are more flavors, more artisan cheeses, than ever. At the end of the day, cheese has become the ultimate flavoring system—a great way to bring new flavors to a menu in an approachable manner.”
This provides a tremendous opportunity for limited-service restaurants. Not only is cheese an important flavoring agent that operators know how to handle, Keys says, but menu items tend to sell better with cheese.
Many factors go into the flavors and textures of different cheese types. The diet of the animal that produced the milk used for the cheese, including the grass it consumes, has a great deal to do with the final product. Adding acids or enzymes to the milk creates curds that are pressed into cheese. The processing methods and the time the cheese is aged also influence the final product, as does flavoring from spices, herbs, or smoke.
In the European Union, many native cheese varieties—Asiago, Feta, Gorgonzola, and others—are among foods that must meet certain geographic and production requirements to carry those names legally. The designations don’t carry weight in the U.S., so many domestic manufacturers make cheese in the style of these traditional European varieties.
The most mentioned cheese on American restaurant menus is Cheddar, followed by Parmesan, according to Food Genius Inc., a Chicago research and consulting company.
Cheddar, of British origin, appears on 63 percent of all restaurant menus, while Italian Parmesan is on 57 percent. Among quick-service and fast-casual spots, Cheddar clocks in on 56 percent of menus, while Parmesan is on 40 percent.
“It seems Cheddar is the real American cheese,” says Benjamin Stanley, cofounder and vice president of product development for Food Genius. The segment keeps growing, and “we’re starting to show many types of Cheddar separately in our database.”
That’s because Cheddar “goes with everything—with wine, with beer, with proteins, with vegetables,” Keys says. “It’s comforting. Yellow processed cheeses may be many Americans’ first experience with cheese, but Cheddar is the ultimate American cheese.”
Parmesan also has a sharp flavor. Two milder Italian varieties with sweet and sour notes, Mozzarella and Provolone, are the third and fifth most popular.
Swiss is on the menu at one-third of restaurants, making it the fourth most popular among fast feeders and seventh among all restaurants. The origin of the mild, sweet cheese is Switzerland’s Emmental region. Blue, Feta, American, and cream cheese are also in the top 10. Two related Southwest-style cheeses are in the final spot: Monterey Jack among all eateries and spicy Pepper Jack in limited service.
In recent years, quick-service restaurants have experimented with many cheese varieties, says Larry Lamb, national sales manager for national accounts and processors at Lactalis Culinary, part of French-based cheese-making giant Lactalis Group.
“As American consumers’ palates become more educated, they have been seeking more flavors,” he says. “Years ago, you would see something like Asiago only at white tablecloth restaurants. Now you find it at Wendy’s.”
Asiago is an ingredient in several Wendy’s items, including the Asiago Ranch Flatbread sandwich launched this year. The cheese “has a bite but is not overwhelming,” says Lori Estrada, senior vice president of research and development at Wendy’s.
Meanwhile, Burger King included Gouda in a breakfast sandwich. “Cheese adds value to the sandwich, both in quality and the price,” Lamb says. “It delivers more flavor than most other ingredients for a small actual cost.”
Asiago offers the flavors of Italy, Gouda brings a taste of The Netherlands, and Brie offers a bit of France, he says.
Although cheese is popular on pizza, salads, and in some soups, sandwiches account for a huge segment of cheese used in the limited-service universe. After all, the bread-and-cheese pairing has been around for thousands of years, well before the word sandwich was first used in the 18th century. Sandwiches with cheese have a long history at traditional delicatessens, and that continues at modern versions, such as at Ridgeland, Mississippi–based McAlister’s Deli. The 315-unit chain features five main cheese varieties: Cheddar, Swiss, Pepper Jack, Parmesan, and a Cheddar-Jack mix. Brie and Gorgonzola are on a few items.
“Cheese is an ingredient that makes anything a little more special,” says executive chef David Groll. “It helps us create great regular sandwiches and special items.”
Cheese has different qualities, in terms of flavor and texture, depending on temperature. With cooler menu items, the cheese helps balance other ingredients, like beef with Cheddar. In hot sandwiches, some flavors are amplified, and melting properties come into play. Most of McAlister’s sandwiches ($6.29–$8.99) feature at least one basic cheese variety, but the Four Cheese Griller has Cheddar, Swiss, Parmesan, and a Brie spread. “It’s a fun flavor,” Groll says. “You’re creating an experience for $6.99.”
Gorgonzola, an Italian blue cheese, is on the Cobb sandwich with smoked turkey, smoked bacon, avocado, and other ingredients.
Cheddar and Swiss are important ingredients in the pantry at Arby’s, one of the nation’s first quick-service sandwich chains. Cheddar sauce has been on the menu for decades, and aged, natural Cheddar is used with some other sandwiches. Two types of Swiss are also employed. “We have a big Swiss with our French Dip [sandwich] and another Swiss with our Market Fresh Roast Turkey and Swiss,” says Len Van Popering, senior vice president of product development.
Limited-time sandwiches have featured varieties like Asiago and Pepper Jack, which “reflect the changing of American tastes,” he says. “We absolutely would not have done them five, 10 years ago.”